Factor analysis of three standardised tests of memory in a clinical population

Hunkin NM, Stone JV, Isaac CL, Holdstock JS, Butterfield R, Wallis LI, and Mayes AR.



The aim of this study was to determine the factor structure of three standardised memory tests: Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Warrington Recognition Memory Test (WRMT), Doors and People Test (D&P). We investigated whether these different standardised tests of memory are consistent in their evaluation of memory function, and the extent to which these tests discriminate between different memory functions (e.g. recall/recognition and verbal/non-verbal memory).


Fifty patients with selective memory impairment were tested on the WMS-R, WRMT and D&P.


Age-scaled scores from selective measures of these tests (WMS-R-verbal, WMS-R-visual, WMS-R-delay, WRMT-words, WRMT-faces, D&P-people, D&P-doors, D&P-shapes, D&P-names) were used as input to a factor analysis.


Maximum likelihood factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution consistent with a theoretically motivated fractionation of memory function into recall and recognition components. Recognition performance, but not recall performance, showed dissociation into visual and verbal components.


The WMS-R, WRMT and D&P are highly consistent in their assessment of memory function. The results of the factor analysis are consistent with a theoretically motivated fractionation of recall and recognition memory. They are also partially consistent with a dissociation between visual and verbal memory function.

Back to J Stone's personal page